A dog relies on its sense of smell to interpret the world around it, similar to how a person
perceives the world around it through sight. Thanks to their excellent sense of smell, dogs
successfully participate in search and rescue operations, discovering traces of a week ago,
finding groups of lost people, bodies of drowned people at a depth of more than 24 meters,
discovering explosives and drugs, and even sniffing out oncology in people. The structure of a
dog’s nose The mobile and soft outer nose and nasal cavity are the starting point of the airways.
This site communicates with the environment through the nostrils, and with the nasopharyngeal
cavity through the choanas (internal nasal openings). The nasal cavity is divided into two
separate cavities by a bone and cartilaginous septum. When inhaled, the nostrils dilate. Inhaled
air passing through the nasal cavity is warmed and humidified. Mucus is secreted inside the
nasal cavity – a kind of filter that traps bacteria and foreign solid particles. The nasal cavity
contains cilia containing many olfactory receptors. Information about the smells captured is
transmitted through nerve endings to the brain, where they are recognized. A dog’s nose has
two different functions. With the help of it, the animal breathes and sniffs. In this case, animals
can simultaneously inhale and exhale. The animal receives information about the smell (to
varying degrees) both through inhalation and exhalation. The lateral openings of the nostrils
play an important role in the recognition of odors. Through them, when inhaled, about 47% of
the air enters, and when the pet sniffs, about 53% of the air. Even if the pet breathes through
the mouth, a certain part of the air when exhaling comes out through the nostrils, where the
receptors carry out the capture and analysis of aromatic substances. The Jacobson organ,
located inside the nasal cavity and on the palate, plays a role in recognizing odors.
The vomeronasal organ is not susceptible to ordinary odors. The sensitive cells of the Jacobson
organ react to volatile aromatic substances that affect the behavior and emotions of the animal.
By the pheromones secreted by males and females, dogs receive information about the
readiness of the bitch for mating, about the sex of the individual who left the mark, newborn
puppies distinguish the mother’s mammary glands. By the way, inside the nasal cavity of
puppies there are some kind of heat sensors, thanks to which the babies find their mother. This
ability persists only for the period until the eyes and ears of the puppies open. The nostrils can
move independently of each other, which helps animals determine which direction is the source
of the smell. Dogs are not able to navigate by smell without side cutouts of the nostrils. Air is not
drawn in by the nostrils from the airspace in front of the dog’s nose. The airspace for each
nostril is 30 degrees (60 degrees in total). When the dog is at rest, the area of coverage from
each nostril is 30-130 degrees. When alert, the lateral openings of the nostrils fold in such a way
that they can draw in air behind the dog. The area of coverage of the air mass from each nostril
is 30-150 degrees, so the animal does not need to turn its head to catch the smell behind it. Wet
nose helps to better capture aroma particles in the air. For this, animals can even lick it.
Interesting Facts The pattern on the nose is unique and individual for each dog, like human
fingerprints, the pattern of which is never repeated. Animals are identified by the pattern on the
lobe. Nose color in dogs is directly related to coat color. So, for example, in individuals with
white spots on the coat, the nose can be spotted, in red individuals, the pigmentation is brown.
But under the influence of external factors or diseases, the pigmentation of the nose is possible.
How developed is the sense of smell in dogs? If a person has only about 5 million olfactory
receptors, then dogs have up to 300 million. It is known that greyhounds, hunting and herding
breeds have a better sense of smell. So, dachshunds have about 125 million olfactory
receptors, fox terriers – 147 million, beagles and German shepherds – 225 million, and
bloodhounds – 300 million, more than any other breed. With age, the sense of smell
deteriorates. Elderly individuals may even refuse the usual food, since they are less able to
catch its aroma, which increases appetite. By the way, vitamin A enhances the ability to capture
and recognize odors. The ability to distinguish odors in animals experiencing fatigue or
overheating of the body decreases. Tired animals switch to mouth breathing to cool off. With
oral breathing, a small percentage of air passes through the nose, the sense of smell is reduced
by 40%. The intake air is insufficient for a complete analysis. But after resting, breathing is
restored. Healthy dog nose It is generally accepted that the moisture of the nose can be used to
judge the health of the pet. A wet nose is a sign of good health, while a dry nose signals
possible problems, which is wrong. The moisture in the nose of a healthy dog can fluctuate
throughout the day. Weather conditions, changeable temperature in the room can be the
reasons for the dryness of the nose lobes. In addition, there are a number of other reasons why
the lobe becomes dry, but not related to the painful condition of the pet. So, for example, a dog’s
nose can become dry after a long stay of the animal in the sun, being near a heat source
(fireplace, radiator), staying in a poorly ventilated room, with insufficient water consumption. Of
course, a dry nose can serve as one of the symptoms of a disease, but diseases are often
accompanied by other symptoms, for example, peeling, redness (sunburn) of the lobe,
Most HEROIC Dogs That SAVED PEOPLE’S LIVES!
From rescuing people from drowning to protecting soldiers from bombs, here are 10 heroic dogs that saved lives.
Brutis the Golden Retriever Brutis’ battle involves another creature from the animal kingdom. In 2004, a young child was playing in the yard, unknowing to the fact that there was a coral snake about to bite him. The bite of a coral snake could be fatal to a child. They have the second deadliest venom out of all snakes,
2nd only to the black mamba. However, because it is very reclusive and has to chew its prey in order to deliver the poison, rattlesnake bites are more feared in the US. Fortunately for the child, Brutis the golden retriever saw the snake and attacked it before it could get the chance to bite. He snatched it up in his jaws and tossed it away from the child, where it slithered away. Brutis was bitten but thankfully he survived. Shortly afterward, Brutis was asked to fly to Los Angeles where he received the National Hero Dog award. I’m sure he got a treat or two, too!
Treo from the Bomb Squad This dog is ex-military. Dogs are a necessity in the military – alongside their human companions, they have duties such as watching out, sending messages, detecting mines and much more. Treo, a black lab mix, saved countless military and civilian lives in Afghanistan by sniffing out IEDs that could have led to widespread devastation. His handler, Sgt. Dave Heyhoe was known as “the dog whisperer” and soldiers would refuse to go out on patrol without them. The Taliban referred to him as “The Black Dog”. He retired in 2009 and was awarded the Dickin Medal which is the highest honour that a military animal can receive in the UK. Once both dog and his handler had completed their service, Sgt. Dave adopted Treo and they lived together happily until Treo passed away from illness in his arms in 2015. Sgt. Dave wrote a book called “It’s All About Treo: Life and War with the World’s Bravest Dog” that is available on Amazon.
Katrina the Black Lab Hurricane Katrina in 2005 holds the record alongside Hurricane Harvey for being the costliest hurricane ever recorded as it caused 125 billion dollars worth of damage. But the greatest cost of all was the loss of life as there were 1833 fatalities. As time went on starving pets were seen on rooftops and staring out of windows with no one to help them. In such dark times it’s important to share stories that will make you smile. One brave dog – ironically named Katrina, (just like the hurricane and just like me), – took the plunge and saved a life. While the flood waters were rising, Katrina noticed a drowning man and jumped in to save him. She managed to get him to safety while keeping herself safe as well. Once the hurricane had ceased after eight days, the labrador was honored at the Genesis Awards in 2005 – she was even given a standing ovation! There are many instances of labradors saving their owners, children, and even other dogs from drowning. A man named Patrick Mulligan from MA, was exploring the coast with his 2 sons when the current took him away. He thought he was going to drown in front of them until their lab Mulligan swam out and saved him.
Bulletproof Max It’s always horrible to hear about cruelty towards any animal so be prepared for this one as it is very sad and is pretty violent. Brazilian man, Osmar Persisco of Garibaldi was walking his dog, Max, in his local park and exercising the boxer dog. They were both enjoying the day when two robbers approached Osmar and demanded his car keys at gunpoint. He refused and they shot him, fortunately just grazing his head. Max leapt into action to save his master and attacked the two robbers, causing one to flee for his life. The other sadly shot the dog twice in the chest and once in the leg before following after his partner in crime. Miraculously, Max and Osmar both escaped without any fatal injuries as Osmar rushed the dog to the vet in time to save him. We don’t know what happened to the robbers but we can only hope they are brought to justice.
Naida the Stray Have you guys ever seen the movie Madeleine? While standing on top of a bridge, Madeleine loses her balance and falls into the river below but is heroically saved by the stray dog that saw her fall in. This is a fictional story but fiction is often inspired by the truth. A Russian boy named Andrei Pavlov was feeding the ducks by a frozen pond near his home when he fell through the ice and into the freezing water below. The boy was only four years old when it happened – but luckily, he had a guardian angel on his side. A stray Siberian dog called Naida had been following the boy all throughout the day as if aware that something was going to happen to him. When he fell, she began to bark madly to catch the attention of someone who could help him. The woman that often fed Naida heard the barking and alerted some construction workers nearby to help pull the boy to safety. He took a few days to recover from the incident but was safe and well. Naida was adopted by a family a few weeks later who had already arranged for her adoption before this happened. They were extremely proud of their hero dog and knew they had made the right decision.
Shana the Wolf Dog There is a lot of speculation about wolf dogs and whether they are suitable for pets or whether they are too predatory and wild to be domesticated. However, this wolf proved everyone wrong. Half wolf, half German Shepherd, Shana was brought up from a puppy by the Fertigs. Seven years after adopting the dog, the Fertigs were tending to the animals they look after in their animal sanctuary when the electricity went out. Knowing something was wrong, they began to walk back to their home but were stopped as a tree came down in front of them, blocking any exit. ((Video should include snowstorm of some kind because I forgot to mention this is why they were stuck)). The couple began to fear for their lives as they were in New York and they didn’t have warm clothes on and the temperature was quickly dropping as the night progressed. Shana, noticing her owners’ absence, went in search of them and when she eventually found them, she began to dig her way through the thick snow and fallen trees to get to the Fertigs. She tunneled all the way through to the house before going after her masters; she then carried wife Eve over her back. Husband Norman took his wife’s legs and Shana dragged them all the way through the tunnel to safety. The couple were chilled to the bone so Shana laid across them to keep them warm until they were found by the fire department and given the proper care that they needed. hana was awarded the Citizens for Humane Animal Treatment Hero’s Award for bravery which is normally an award granted to humans.
Bandit the Alarm Dogs are known for their keen sense of smell. Fortunately for the DeStefani family, Bandit wasn’t an exception to this. The Pomeranian Poodle mix was being looked after by the family as a favour overnight. Earlier in the evening, Rich Destefani had put a hairbrush into boiling water to sterilize it but forgot about it when the family went to bed.
In the middle of the night, the water was boiled away and the plastic handle of the hairbrush began to melt. Burning plastic is toxic to anyone who might inhale it. The DeStefani family had fire alarms installed but they didn’t go off. Luckily, Bandit awoke to the smell and jumped up onto the wife of the family, Jennifer until she awoke and managed to evacuate the rest of the family. The house wasn’t overly damaged aside from the stove and surrounding areas but fortunately, everyone left with their lives intact – all thanks to Bandit.
Dog of the Year Maya The next dog in our list is practically dog royalty as she won the 2008 Dog of the Year award for her heroic act. Pit bulls have a bad reputation for being aggressive and it is actually illegal to breed them in some areas of the world, including the UK. Angela Marcelino was returning home when she was pushed into her house by an intruder. He started choking her and threatening her. Somehow through rasped words, Angela managed to order her pit bull, Maya, to attack him. Maya jumped up onto him and managed to fight him off just enough for Angela to fight back. The intruder fled but had left blood on Maya’s fur – the blood was tested and the man was arrested for assault. The founder of the Hero Dog award said that Maya’s actions were testament to the fact that pit bulls could be heroes just as much as any other breed if only treated with the same love and affection. Angela says that she wouldn’t know what she would do without Maya – she had saved her life in more ways than one.
The Accidental Cavalry Perhaps you’ve heard the expression ‘the cavalry’s here’ when all seems lost and our own resources aren’t enough to fulfill the need. While this wasn’t the case entirely with this story, the three dogs in question weren’t military trained dogs. The three dogs were called Sasha, Rufus and Target. They were strays in Afghanistan who had been befriended by Georgia National Guardsman Chris Duke. They were accidental sentries as they sounded a barking alarm when they saw a suicide bomber running towards the barracks – none of the other soldiers had noticed the bomber. The dogs ran and attacked the bomber who detonated the bomb before being able to enter the barracks. Sasha was sadly too injured to be saved and was put down, but the remaining two recovered from their injuries. Chris Duke says that they saved his life and the life of many others. When Duke returned to the United States, he told them what had happened and there was a petition raised for Rufus and Target to be taken out of Afghanistan and brought to the States. It was granted and Rufus lived with Chris Duke while Target went to live with another survivor of the bombing incident.
Heroic Honey Sweetly named, Honey is just as strong as the rest of these dogs. Her owner, Michael Bosch, was driving in the car with her in the front when the SUV got in a car accident and rolled upside down in a deep ravine. The cocker spaniel puppy was only 5 months old at the time and wasn’t strong enough to be able to pull Bosch out herself. Bosch knew that she could do something and that she was his only hope. He managed to free her and she ran to find someone to help her owner. She got the attention of a man half a mile away and brought him back to the scene. She was awarded the 2006 Dog of the Year award.
Is a big or small dog better
Over hundreds of years of selection, an incredible number of
different breeds have been bred: from the smallest Chihuahuas to giant dogs. And sometimes
the choice is obvious, given easily, but some future owners choose between a small and a large
dog, evaluating all the advantages and disadvantages. Comparison of large and small dogs Life
span Larger individuals have a shorter lifespan than small ones. Representatives of large
breeds age faster and are more prone to joint and other diseases. Research by scientists,
based on the study of more than 56,000 dogs of 74 different breeds, has shown that for every 2
kg increase in weight, life expectancy decreases by about 1 month. On average, large animals
live 7-9 years, while small ones can live twice as long. Nervousness Small animals have a
reputation for being slightly irritable and nervous animals. Such behavior can be genetically
inherited, but upbringing also plays an important role in the formation of animal behavior. Large
and small dogs need socialization, education, during which the boundaries of what is permitted,
hierarchy are established. Under certain circumstances, small pets behave aggressively, which
can be justified by the fear of a small animal trying to protect itself. Training With the right
approach to training and motivation, physically and mentally healthy animals of any size lend
themselves to training, just some need more time, while others grasp everything on the fly.
Small breeds are not able to concentrate for a long time, so for them classes are shortened to
5-7 minutes, otherwise the pet will lose interest. But during the day, you can do several
approaches to the study of this or that exercise, working out the team. Physical exercise Every
pet needs minimal daily physical activity to maintain weight and normal health. Size is not
always an indication that large individuals need more exercise than small ones. It all depends
on the characteristics of the breed, some animals are active, energetic and they need active
games, training (Jack Russell Terrier, Border Collie), while others are less active by nature (Shih
Tzu, Pug, Chow Chow). Guard and sentry qualities Instincts have not been canceled; some
breeds have well-developed guarding qualities. Large dogs look intimidating, frighten off with
formidable barking and impressive size. But small animals also know how to warn of danger, the
arrival of intruders, although they will not be able to fully protect family members.
Representatives of some breeds, although small in size, but with the spirit of a strong and
formidable dog, are endowed with courage and loyalty. Smell Regardless of the breed, dogs
have their own odor, which intensifies under certain conditions, for example, in heat, when the
coat gets wet. But small breeds smell less, due to the fact that their coat gets dirty less, some of
them have a poorly developed undercoat, it is easier to care for them and keep the coat clean.
The control Small breeds are less powerful due to their small size. During a walk, such a dog is
easier to keep on a leash, even if it pulls. The small dog can be picked up or carried in a carrier
if it misbehaves. A large pet is not easy to hold if he jerks after the object that has attracted his
attention. Even an adult and strong man can hardly keep a large animal, let alone a woman or a
child. A place It is believed that larger breeds need more space. The opinion is partly true, but it
all depends on the level of activity of the animal and its lifestyle. Working dogs, for example,
Siberian Husky, Border Collie, need frequent physical activity, individuals with a thick undercoat
are less tolerant of room temperatures, especially in winter. To keep them in the house, you
need to allocate more space for the couch. To meet the exercise needs, you will need to walk
your pet more often. Therefore, when choosing, the determining factor is the temperament of
the animal, the level of energy, working qualities. For example, living conditions may not be
suitable for shepherd and sled breeds. Care A large pet is more difficult to care for than a small
one. It will take more time and effort. Bathing requires more space, more water consumption.
Drying of wool takes longer, naturally the coat can dry longer than a day, especially if the animal
has cords. Longer trimming, claw trimming can be a problem, and family assistance may be
needed to secure and hold the animal. Food Many future owners choose small dogs because
they need less food than large dogs. This circumstance allows you to acquire a four-legged
friend and save on its content. Large animals require more calories to maintain their weight and
get the energy they need. Consequently, you will have to spend more money to buy
ready-made feed or natural products. Money spendings Small dogs are better than large dogs
in terms of economy. The maintenance of small breeds requires less money, because they
consume less food, medicines are cheaper (less dosage), less cosmetics, even clothes and
accessories are cheaper. Children in the family Regardless of size, pets jump and run. During
the game, large and small dogs can accidentally drop a child, and if handled roughly, they can
bite. Among the many breeds, there are those that are tolerant of children, much depends on
the temperament of the animal. A small pet may not show friendliness to a child, but a large
one, for example, a Newfoundland, may become an excellent “nanny”. In any case, you should
not allow children to be alone with the animal, and it is also necessary to instill in children the
rules of respectful treatment of animals. The comfort of family members should be taken into
account. If the child is afraid of large dogs, then it is better to give preference to a small breed.
How do you change ownership of a dog?
There are many situations in which there is a change in the owner of a dog. The previous owner
could die, some are forced to part with the pet due to the move, others are no longer able to
keep the animal and take care of it due to age, illness, increased employment. Where to attach
a dog If the search for a new owner among friends and relatives has not been crowned with
success, then there are only two options left. Submit an advertisement in the media or arrange
an admission to the shelter. Advertisements can be placed electronically on popular Internet
resources (updated daily), submitted to a newspaper, and paper advertisements can be pasted.
In any case, the ad indicates the age of the animal, gender, weight, height, temperament
characteristics, make clear (better color) full-length photographs of the dog, describe possible
health problems, but pay more attention to positive characteristics. You can send an animal to a
shelter by contacting it directly or through charitable foundations dealing with animal problems in
the city. However, it is not always possible to attach a dog to a shelter, since they are often
overcrowded. Veterinary clinics can help. Potential owners should be asked questions to make
sure they can take care of the animal. After the dog is with the new owner, you should not visit
it. The adaptation of a pet to a new family will be faster if it does not return to the past. This will
minimize the animal’s own sadness and stress. In addition, it will be unpleasant to see how the
pet gradually begins to move away, ceases to be happy with the meeting and even barks.
If proper attention is paid, care is provided, then the dog will quickly get used to the new owner
and new living conditions. How a dog copes with a change of owner If the pet is middle-aged or
elderly, or socially dependent, then parting with the previous owner can turn into depression.
Dogs are sensitive to changes in their life, it is not for nothing that it is recommended to form a
lifestyle according to a certain repetitive schedule. The animal may lose interest in favorite
things and activities, it may have a decrease in energy, lethargy, may refuse to eat or eat little,
interact less with people. The pet tries to retire, preferring to sleep during the day, while
restlessly sleeping at night. Prolonged depression is a reason to see a veterinarian. Some pets
show signs of destructive behavior, for example, chewing objects, barking or howling, and
behaving anxiously, trying unsuccessfully to find a previous owner. Some animals do not show
any signs of emotional distress, though. How to speed up adaptation It is important to help cope
with sadness, to do everything so that the dog gets used to the new home and becomes
attached to the new owner. Let your pet explore the house or fenced yard, although in most
cases it will try to find its way out and escape from unfamiliar surroundings or hide. Therefore, it
should not be left unattended. You only need to go out on a leash. The dog is given its own
space. A sleeping place is arranged in a quiet place where the animal can feel safe. A favorite
toy helps to enhance the sense of security. You can use the old bed, since the pet experiences
stress from the change of place of residence, and familiar objects will give more calmness and
confidence. The pet is surrounded with care and love. They constantly interact with the animal,
encouraging it to play, walk. You need to act gently, affectionately, drawing the animal’s
attention to new toys, family activities, slowly moving on to learning simple commands, offering
treats. Speak softly, amicably, pronounce the nickname more often. At first, try not to leave your
pet alone at home. Thus, a trusting relationship with the animal is built. Dogs are creatures of
habit. Therefore, it is important to gradually build a daily routine that includes walking, feeding,
hygienic care at the same time. Until the animal has adapted, has not begun to feel comfortable
in the new environment, it should not be overloaded with new information and emotions. Let him
spend some time in the house, walking around the house for a short time. You need to gradually
introduce new places and people. A sharp change in the usual diet, combined with the
experiences of the animal, can lead to indigestion (diarrhea). Therefore, adjustments to the diet
and the introduction of new products are made gradually. Food is made more attractive due to
delicious delicacies, special sauces, which are lightly seasoned with food, giving it a tempting
aroma and taste. The adaptation process can take from several days to several months. It is
especially difficult for a dog to get used to a new owner if the pet had a strong attachment to the
previous owner. The speed of adaptation largely depends on education and socialization.
Socialized animals adapt faster. Dogs are pack animals. A change of leader is a completely
natural process for them, and sooner or later, the pet will get used to new conditions. Human
behaviors are often projected onto pets who become family members. But not all of them are
painful for separation, and not every dog experiences stress when changing owners. Often, the
drama is created due to the feeling of guilt that for some reason there is no way to keep the
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