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In this article, I will cover the main diseases in adult dogs and puppies. I will list diseases of various origins and the symptoms that accompany it. I will tell you what to do if you suspect the dog is unhealthy.

An animal’s body is as fragile as a human. Susceptible to viral, bacterial, parasitic, and fungal infections. The health of a dog is influenced by a genetic predisposition to certain disorders, an ecological and psychological situation. Aging of the body, injuries, poor nutrition has a significant impact on the well-being of the pet.

Types and symptoms of diseases in dogs

Numerous canine diseases can be divided into several groups for their underlying causes.


There are many viral diseases that can affect dogs.

These are a plague of carnivores, parvovirus enteritis, rabies, viral hepatitis, otitis media, laryngitis, pneumonia, Aujeszky’s disease, herpes, infectious tracheobronchitis, parainfluenza, coronavirus enteritis, etc.

Symptoms, the course of the disease, and possible complications depend on the specific type of virus.

Nevertheless, there are general signs by which one can suspect a developing viral disease in a pet.


  • loss of appetite;
  • apathy and lethargy;
  • temperature increase;
  • digestive disorders (vomiting, diarrhea, constipation);
  • discharge from the eyes;
  • runny nose;
  • sneezing;
  • difficulty breathing.

Dog plague canines parvovirus is a provocateur of canine parvovirus gastroenteritis causative agent of rabies is a neurotropic virus that affects the brain.


Skin diseases are manifested in the form of redness, itching, hair loss, seborrhea, local swelling.

There are:

  • allergic ( dermatitis );
  • acanthosis, caused by parasitism of ticks on the body of dogs (itchy scabies, ringworm, etc.);
  • genetic (for example, acanthosis nigricans);
  • yeast infections;
  • adenitis of the sebaceous glands;
  • seborrhea;
  • vitiligo (lack of skin pigment), etc.

Atopic dermatitis.

Juvenile cellulite.


Infectious diseases are divided into:

  • protozoal (toxoplasmosis, piroplasmosis, sarcocystosis, etc.) occur when an animal is affected by unicellular protozoa);
  • enormous (lesions by fleas, lice, lice, etc.);
  • bacterial (anthrax, tuberculosis, tetanus, brucellosis, leptospirosis, etc.);
  • fungal (various dermatomycosis);
  • rickettsial (pathogens are parasites that affect the inside of the cell).

The definitive host of the intracellular parasite – Toxoplasma is a dogVlasoids in dogs.


Cancer is as common in dogs as it is in humans.

All organs and systems of the animal are susceptible to the growth of malignant tumors.

Common symptoms for which you can suspect cancer in a dog include:

  • severe weakness (unwillingness to play, run, move once more);
  • loss of appetite;
  • weight loss;
  • a slight constant increase in body temperature;
  • painful appearance (dull sad eyes, poor coat condition);
  • with cancer of the digestive system – bad breath, blood in the stool, digestive disorders ( constipation, diarrhea);
  • with cardiac and pulmonary oncology, shortness of breath, cough, hemoptysis occurs;
  • tumors of the mammary glands are manifested by swelling and discharge with blood;
  • in renal oncology, blood is found in the urine.

Breast cancer in a dogCarcinoma – a type of malignant tumor – cancer.

Eye diseases

To the eye disease in dogs include:

  • infectious lesions (viral, bacterial);
  • non-infectious (mucosal injuries, neoplasms, inflammatory processes, for example, with eversion of the eyelids or improper growth of eyelashes);
  • congenital, for example, deformation of the lens;
  • senile (blepharospasm, keratitis, prolapse, etc.)

Symptoms may differ depending on what caused the eye disease.

The general signs of diseases of the visual organs include:

  • redness of the conjunctiva;
  • profuse lacrimation;
  • uncharacteristic discharge (purulent);
  • itching;
  • swelling;
  • with some diseases – the appearance of tumors of a different shade on the eye;
  • non-standard position of the eyelids;


Ear diseases

Diseases of the ears in dogs are:

  • viral;
  • bacterial;
  • fungal;
  • parasitic;
    • allergic;

An attentive owner will always notice an ear disease in a dog by the characteristic symptoms:

  • itching (the dog scratches the sore ear with his paw);
  • squealing and howling when touching a sore ear;
  • uncharacteristic discharge from the ear canal, possibly with an unpleasant odor (with purulent otitis media);
  • redness of the auricles;
  • swelling of the ears;
  • unnatural bloom.

Ear mite

Heart disease

Heart disease in dogs is:

  • congenital;

Heart diseases include:

  • heart failure (acute, congestive, and chronic);
  • myocarditis;
  • myocarditis;
  • endocarditis:
  • myocardial infarction (coronary heart disease).

A pet’s heart disease can be suspected by the following:

  • heavy breathing, possibly with wheezing;
  • chronic dry cough;
  • fainting;
  • The pallor of the mucous membranes;
  • weight loss;
  • fast fatiguability;
  • severe shortness of breath after exercise;
  • weakness;
  • arrhythmia (sometimes you can feel it yourself without an apparatus);
  • fever possible;
  • flabbiness and dullness of the skin;
  • poorly expressed pulse;
  • an increase in the peritoneum is possible.

Cardiac pathologies in dogs run a little differently than comparing animals to humans

Liver disease

There are:

  • primary, arise as a result of mechanical and toxic effects on the liver. For example, with injuries, poisoning, infectious);
  • secondary ones arise as a result of complications of primary diseases (after drug treatment, pathological conditions of the gastrointestinal tract, etc.).

Each has its own symptomatology. Common signs of liver inflammation are:

  • weight loss;
  • lethargy and apathy;
  • digestive disorders (vomiting, diarrhea);
  • thirst;
  • discoloration of urine (becomes reddish) and feces (becomes light);
  • yellowing of the mucous membranes;
  • swelling in the peritoneal region;
  • dizziness (loss of coordination);
  • dyspnea;
  • convulsions;
  • pain in the abdominal region (noticeable when touched and in an uncharacteristic position of the pet);
  • increased body temperature;
  • deterioration of the appearance of the coat.

The yellowness of the mucous membranes in dogs with hepatitis

Respiratory tract

Respiratory diseases are divided into:

  • trachea and pharynx (upper respiratory tract);
  • bronchi and lungs (lower respiratory tract);
  • pleura and diaphragm (chest cavity).

The symptoms are:

  • temperature increase;
  • lethargy;
  • loss of appetite;
  • change in breathing (becomes rapid or slow);
  • dyspnea;
  • wheezing;
  • cough;
  • hoarseness of voice.

Asthma is a dog


Endocrine (hormonal) ones include:

  • hypothalamus;
  • pituitary gland;
  • pancreas;
  • adrenal glands;
  • sex glands.

The endocrine system is responsible for the production of hormones on which the normal growth and development of the dog depends


  • dermatitis and dermatoses ( seborrhea, eczema, skin tightening, etc.);
  • neurological disorders (dog aggression, apathy, changes in taste preferences, instability of appetite);
  • inability to fertilize.

Autoimmune diseases

The pathology of the immune system is manifested in the inability of the body to fight infectious diseases.

These conditions usually have a genetic predisposition.

Autoimmune blood diseases are manifested in anemia and thrombocytopenia. At the same time, the dog’s body temperature rises quickly, the sclera of the eyes turn yellow, the urine darkens, and blood appears in the feces.

Lupus erythematosus affects all organs in a dog. During the process, the body temperature rises, bleeding from the nose, and intestines develop.

Skin erythema and pemphigus are manifested in serious lesions of the skin of the dog, the occurrence of erosions, and ulcers.

Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by joint damage. It proceeds with an increase in temperature, severe pain, and local swelling.

Pemphigus – an autoimmune disease in dogs


Helminthic diseases occur when pets are infected with helminth worms.

To worm infestation include echinococcosis, opisthorchiasis, taeniasis, and others.

The symptoms of these invasions are as follows:

  • sudden changes in appetite (either complete absence or gluttony);
  • weight loss;
  • bloating;
  • intestinal disorders (vomiting, diarrhea, constipation);
  • itching in the anus (the dog rides the pope on the floor);
  • deterioration of the appearance of the coat (becomes dull and tousled);

Cucumber tapeworm in dogsCapillaria parasite.

Canine Disease Treatment

If you suspect a deterioration in the health of the dog and the development of pathology, especially characterized by severe symptoms, it is necessary to contact a veterinary institution for advice.

You cannot postpone a visit to the veterinarian if the dog is ill. Many types of infections are hazardous to human health and are fatal in dogs.

Timely therapy can quickly restore the dog and save his life.

Diseases whose symptoms are variable cause premature death of the animal

Diseases of dogs have similar symptoms. Only an experienced specialist can prescribe a competent diagnostic examination to identify the true pathology. At home, such manipulations are impossible.

It is impossible to prescribe drug therapy to the dog on its own.

Many drugs have a large number of contraindications and side effects. The wrong medication and dosage can aggravate the condition of the dog and lead to death.

It is strictly prohibited to treat dogs with medications from a human pharmacy. The active components of such drugs, which effectively cope with human diseases, can kill an animal in a matter of minutes.

In this article, I talked about the main diseases in dogs. She listed diseases of various origins and the symptoms that accompany it. She told me what to do if there was a suspicion of a dog’s illness.



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Is a big or small dog better




Is a big or small dog better?

Over hundreds of years of selection, an incredible number of
different breeds have been bred: from the smallest Chihuahuas to giant dogs. And sometimes
the choice is obvious, given easily, but some future owners choose between a small and a large
dog, evaluating all the advantages and disadvantages. Comparison of large and small dogs Life
span Larger individuals have a shorter lifespan than small ones. Representatives of large
breeds age faster and are more prone to joint and other diseases. Research by scientists,
based on the study of more than 56,000 dogs of 74 different breeds, has shown that for every 2
kg increase in weight, life expectancy decreases by about 1 month. On average, large animals
live 7-9 years, while small ones can live twice as long. Nervousness Small animals have a
reputation for being slightly irritable and nervous animals. Such behavior can be genetically
inherited, but upbringing also plays an important role in the formation of animal behavior. Large
and small dogs need socialization, education, during which the boundaries of what is permitted,
hierarchy are established. Under certain circumstances, small pets behave aggressively, which
can be justified by the fear of a small animal trying to protect itself. Training With the right
approach to training and motivation, physically and mentally healthy animals of any size lend
themselves to training, just some need more time, while others grasp everything on the fly.

Is a big or small dog better?

Small breeds are not able to concentrate for a long time, so for them classes are shortened to
5-7 minutes, otherwise the pet will lose interest. But during the day, you can do several
approaches to the study of this or that exercise, working out the team. Physical exercise Every
pet needs minimal daily physical activity to maintain weight and normal health. Size is not
always an indication that large individuals need more exercise than small ones. It all depends
on the characteristics of the breed, some animals are active, energetic and they need active
games, training (Jack Russell Terrier, Border Collie), while others are less active by nature (Shih
Tzu, Pug, Chow Chow). Guard and sentry qualities Instincts have not been canceled; some
breeds have well-developed guarding qualities. Large dogs look intimidating, frighten off with
formidable barking and impressive size. But small animals also know how to warn of danger, the
arrival of intruders, although they will not be able to fully protect family members.
Representatives of some breeds, although small in size, but with the spirit of a strong and
formidable dog, are endowed with courage and loyalty. Smell Regardless of the breed, dogs
have their own odor, which intensifies under certain conditions, for example, in heat, when the
coat gets wet. But small breeds smell less, due to the fact that their coat gets dirty less, some of
them have a poorly developed undercoat, it is easier to care for them and keep the coat clean.
The control Small breeds are less powerful due to their small size. During a walk, such a dog is
easier to keep on a leash, even if it pulls. The small dog can be picked up or carried in a carrier
if it misbehaves. A large pet is not easy to hold if he jerks after the object that has attracted his
attention. Even an adult and strong man can hardly keep a large animal, let alone a woman or a
child. A place It is believed that larger breeds need more space. The opinion is partly true, but it
all depends on the level of activity of the animal and its lifestyle. Working dogs, for example,
Siberian Husky, Border Collie, need frequent physical activity, individuals with a thick undercoat
are less tolerant of room temperatures, especially in winter. To keep them in the house, you
need to allocate more space for the couch. To meet the exercise needs, you will need to walk
your pet more often. Therefore, when choosing, the determining factor is the temperament of
the animal, the level of energy, working qualities. For example, living conditions may not be
suitable for shepherd and sled breeds. Care A large pet is more difficult to care for than a small
one. It will take more time and effort. Bathing requires more space, more water consumption.
Drying of wool takes longer, naturally the coat can dry longer than a day, especially if the animal
has cords. Longer trimming, claw trimming can be a problem, and family assistance may be
needed to secure and hold the animal. Food Many future owners choose small dogs because
they need less food than large dogs. This circumstance allows you to acquire a four-legged
friend and save on its content. Large animals require more calories to maintain their weight and
get the energy they need. Consequently, you will have to spend more money to buy
ready-made feed or natural products. Money spendings Small dogs are better than large dogs
in terms of economy. The maintenance of small breeds requires less money, because they
consume less food, medicines are cheaper (less dosage), less cosmetics, even clothes and
accessories are cheaper. Children in the family Regardless of size, pets jump and run. During
the game, large and small dogs can accidentally drop a child, and if handled roughly, they can
bite. Among the many breeds, there are those that are tolerant of children, much depends on
the temperament of the animal. A small pet may not show friendliness to a child, but a large
one, for example, a Newfoundland, may become an excellent “nanny”. In any case, you should
not allow children to be alone with the animal, and it is also necessary to instill in children the
rules of respectful treatment of animals. The comfort of family members should be taken into
account. If the child is afraid of large dogs, then it is better to give preference to a small breed.

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How do you change ownership of a dog?




How do you change ownership of a dog?

There are many situations in which there is a change in the owner of a dog. The previous owner
could die, some are forced to part with the pet due to the move, others are no longer able to
keep the animal and take care of it due to age, illness, increased employment. Where to attach
a dog If the search for a new owner among friends and relatives has not been crowned with
success, then there are only two options left. Submit an advertisement in the media or arrange
an admission to the shelter. Advertisements can be placed electronically on popular Internet
resources (updated daily), submitted to a newspaper, and paper advertisements can be pasted.
In any case, the ad indicates the age of the animal, gender, weight, height, temperament
characteristics, make clear (better color) full-length photographs of the dog, describe possible
health problems, but pay more attention to positive characteristics. You can send an animal to a
shelter by contacting it directly or through charitable foundations dealing with animal problems in
the city. However, it is not always possible to attach a dog to a shelter, since they are often
overcrowded. Veterinary clinics can help. Potential owners should be asked questions to make
sure they can take care of the animal. After the dog is with the new owner, you should not visit
it. The adaptation of a pet to a new family will be faster if it does not return to the past. This will
minimize the animal’s own sadness and stress. In addition, it will be unpleasant to see how the
pet gradually begins to move away, ceases to be happy with the meeting and even barks.

How do you change ownership of a dog?

If proper attention is paid, care is provided, then the dog will quickly get used to the new owner
and new living conditions. How a dog copes with a change of owner If the pet is middle-aged or
elderly, or socially dependent, then parting with the previous owner can turn into depression.
Dogs are sensitive to changes in their life, it is not for nothing that it is recommended to form a
lifestyle according to a certain repetitive schedule. The animal may lose interest in favorite
things and activities, it may have a decrease in energy, lethargy, may refuse to eat or eat little,
interact less with people. The pet tries to retire, preferring to sleep during the day, while
restlessly sleeping at night. Prolonged depression is a reason to see a veterinarian. Some pets
show signs of destructive behavior, for example, chewing objects, barking or howling, and
behaving anxiously, trying unsuccessfully to find a previous owner. Some animals do not show
any signs of emotional distress, though. How to speed up adaptation It is important to help cope
with sadness, to do everything so that the dog gets used to the new home and becomes
attached to the new owner. Let your pet explore the house or fenced yard, although in most
cases it will try to find its way out and escape from unfamiliar surroundings or hide. Therefore, it
should not be left unattended. You only need to go out on a leash. The dog is given its own
space. A sleeping place is arranged in a quiet place where the animal can feel safe. A favorite
toy helps to enhance the sense of security. You can use the old bed, since the pet experiences
stress from the change of place of residence, and familiar objects will give more calmness and
confidence. The pet is surrounded with care and love. They constantly interact with the animal,
encouraging it to play, walk. You need to act gently, affectionately, drawing the animal’s
attention to new toys, family activities, slowly moving on to learning simple commands, offering
treats. Speak softly, amicably, pronounce the nickname more often. At first, try not to leave your
pet alone at home. Thus, a trusting relationship with the animal is built. Dogs are creatures of
habit. Therefore, it is important to gradually build a daily routine that includes walking, feeding,
hygienic care at the same time. Until the animal has adapted, has not begun to feel comfortable
in the new environment, it should not be overloaded with new information and emotions. Let him
spend some time in the house, walking around the house for a short time. You need to gradually
introduce new places and people. A sharp change in the usual diet, combined with the
experiences of the animal, can lead to indigestion (diarrhea). Therefore, adjustments to the diet
and the introduction of new products are made gradually. Food is made more attractive due to
delicious delicacies, special sauces, which are lightly seasoned with food, giving it a tempting
aroma and taste. The adaptation process can take from several days to several months. It is
especially difficult for a dog to get used to a new owner if the pet had a strong attachment to the
previous owner. The speed of adaptation largely depends on education and socialization.
Socialized animals adapt faster. Dogs are pack animals. A change of leader is a completely
natural process for them, and sooner or later, the pet will get used to new conditions. Human
behaviors are often projected onto pets who become family members. But not all of them are
painful for separation, and not every dog experiences stress when changing owners. Often, the
drama is created due to the feeling of guilt that for some reason there is no way to keep the

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Feed rates for dogs by age




Feed rates for dogs by age

Before you get a dog, you need to decide not only on the breed, but also on the upcoming
expenses for the purchase of pet food. The correct calculation of a single portion is also
important for the health of the animal, since overfeeding can cause obesity, and being
overweight, in turn, leads to other serious problems.

How to calculate the correct portion for feeding dogs

Feed rates for dogs by age
The amount of food for dogs depends on several factors:
● pet breeds;
● weight characteristics;
● lifestyle;
● the age of the animal.
It is quite natural that large-sized individuals (Alabai, Bulldogs, German Shepherds, Labradors)
need twice as much food as indoor ones (Spitz, Pug, Chihuahua, Miniature Pinscher, Yorkie).
“An adult animal should be given up to 1 kg of dry food per day, while a puppy should be given
200 g”.
If the dog is kept only on the street, then its appetite is higher than that of a relative, which is
taken out into the fresh air only for a walk. Under mixed conditions of detention, you need to
select your own nutritional standards. Active individuals burn energy twice as fast as lazy ones.
Over time, metabolism changes, it takes more time to digest.
Some processes fade away, causing irreversible metamorphosis in the body. Dry and roughage
should be replaced with liquid and semi-liquid food for better absorption.
Feeding professionals believe that for an adult, the daily rate should be no more than 1 kg of dry
You can divide the portions into several receptions, you should take into account the class of
feed: economy, premium, holistic. The higher the grade of the feed developed by the
manufacturer, the less it will be needed for one individual. Physical characteristics are also
worth considering: large breed dogs eat a lot more than indoor dogs.
It is normal for the animal to feel hungry during the day. The main indicators that the food is
selected correctly are a healthy coat and body weight, at which the dog can lead an active
You should also consider the fact that many pets like to sleep after eating. Therefore, if the
owner leaves the house for a long time, it makes sense to feed the dog before leaving so that
during his absence she would spend a significant part of the time sleeping.
Puppies are not weaned until 4 weeks of age and are breastfed. From a three-week period of
life, they begin to accustom to solid food and feed them up to 5 times a day every 4 hours.
Upon reaching two months of age, the number of feedings is reduced to 3-4, after six months of
age – 2; one-year-old animals and older, depending on their physical condition, are fed once or
twice a day.

Diet by age and weight

If a small puppy is taken to the house, then each feeding should be strictly according to the
schedule, at least 4 hours later. If this rule is observed, the baby’s diet is established, which has
a beneficial effect on the functioning of the digestive system.
Gradually, the periods between feedings increase, the night intake is best done after 6 hours.
When the age of the pet reaches six months and older, it is fed every 5 days during the day. A
one-year-old dog is considered an adult and is fed 2 times a day.
To avoid problems with digestion:
● one hour before meals and one hour after the dog must rest;
● you can not arrange active games during rest, especially after eating;
● it is necessary to feed the animal in a calm environment;
● keep the bowl clean by removing all residues from it in a timely manner.

Puppy food norms

In order to correctly calculate the daily feed rate for a puppy, you need to know its weight and
calorie content of the feed itself.
The feed rate is indicated for 1 kg of weight.
If it is possible to buy elite feed for them, then the dosage is made at the rate of 60 g per 2 kg of
weight, not taking into account the calorie content of the feed.
Gradually, dry food begins to be mixed with canned food, and then they are transferred to adult
Age Calories (kcal)
up to 1 month 220
up to 3 months 270
up to 6 months 150
up to 12 months 120

Feed rates for adult dogs

The amount of feed per 1 kg of body weight per day for an adult dog depends on the breed and
It should be borne in mind that the animal may exhibit food allergies.
Elderly dogs are considered older than 7 years. Due to their age, they may have problems with
the digestive system. If the diseases are clearly manifested, it is recommended to transfer such
individuals to a special diet.

Norms for natural nutrition

With natural nutrition, take 40 grams of dry food, the same amount of wet food and fiber per 1
kg of body weight. For pregnant women, service dogs and stud dogs, the number of natural
dogs can be increased.
With an average physical activity, a dog weighing up to 40 kg requires a day in grams:
● meat – 600;
● cereals – 500;
● vegetables – 200-300.
With heavy physical exertion, a relative in the same weight category needs (in grams):
● fresh meat – 1000;
● cereals – up to 700;
● vegetables – 300.
With increased physical activity, for a dog weighing more than 40 kg, it should be used per day
(in grams):
● meat – 500;
● cereals – 700;
● vegetables – 400.
It is also recommended to add 50 g of meat and fish-bone meal to the diet, from fermented milk
products – kefir and fermented baked milk, in a volume of 100-200 ml, cottage cheese – from
200 to 500 g.
Breeds Calories (kcal)
Dwarf or very small (up to 5 kg, height up to 30 cm) 100-120
Small (from 5 to 10 kg, up to 40 cm) 55-95
Medium (up to 20 kg, 40-56 cm) 70-80
Large (from 20 to 30 kg, 56-65 cm) 60-70
Giant (50+ kg, from 60 cm) 55-65

Wet Feeding Rates

If the owner decided to feed the pet with wet food, then the mass of one dose is calculated in
the proportion of 70-120 grams of cooked food per 1 kg of animal weight. It all depends on age,
breed and lifestyle. Pregnant, guard dogs and males during the mating period increase the
amount of food by 10-15%.

we recommends: norms and rules for feeding dry food (by breed,
age, weight)

As a rule, the daily intake rates are indicated by the dry food manufacturer on the packaging.
But this information is for informational purposes only, since the manufacturers do not know the
individual characteristics of the pet.
Dogs of small breeds are often very active, they metabolize faster, and their medium and large
breeds move more slowly, and metabolic processes are often less active. Small stature and
body weight force the dog to be in the lower layers of the atmospheric air, therefore, in the
winter season, it can freeze more and burn the calories received faster.
Older dogs need a softer food structure, while younger dogs need bones and tough food.
Veterinarians have concluded that a 75% to 25% dry to wet ratio is best for a dog’s health in a
daily diet.
The higher the calorie content, the less feed the pet needs, since the body is saturated faster,
thanks to the proteins it contains in kcal:
● holistic – 350-450;
● super premium – 350-450;
● premium – 300–350;
● economy – 250-300.
Holistic food is made from the highest quality products and can be recommended for specialized
feeding as it is hypoallergenic. Super-premium granules are a complete food, premium – they
contain offal and animal proteins, economy – low quality products, you need to additionally
include vitamin supplements in the diet.
For one-month-old puppies, it is preferable to prepare soaked dry food pellets so that tooth
enamel does not wear off.
For small breeds from 2 to 5 kg, it is advised to give 50-100 g of dry food per serving for an
active lifestyle, and 30-80 for an inactive one.
For dogs whose weight starts from 10 kg, with good walking and games, 150-170 g are
required, for their less active relatives – 120-150. Further, the rate of one dose increases by 100
g for every 10 kg. That is, if the animal weighs 20 kg – 250-270, 30 kg – 350-370 g, etc.
If the food is selected correctly, then the dog looks cheerful, shows interest in games, his coat is
healthy and shiny. With the wrong diet, the dog can begin to gain extra pounds. To prevent this
from happening, you need to control whether she manages to eat a portion in 20 minutes or not.
If the food is based on dry granules, then the pet needs more water than wet feeding. Therefore,
it is important that there is always fresh water in the drinking bowl.

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